Facts about Down Syndrome
- A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose
- Almond-shaped eyes that slant up
- A short neck
- Small ears
- A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth
- Tiny white spots on the iris (colored part) of the eye
- Small hands and feet
- A single line across the palm of the hand (palmar crease)
- Small pinky fingers that sometimes curve toward the thumb
- Poor muscle tone or loose joints
- Shorter in height as children and adults
Types of Down Syndrome
Causes and Risk Factors
- Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)—examines material from the placenta
- Amniocentesis—examines the amniotic fluid (the fluid from the sac surrounding the baby)
- Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)—examines blood from the umbilical cord
Other Health Problems Among Children With Down syndrome
- Hearing loss (up to 75% of people with Down syndrome may be affected)
- Obstructive sleep apnea, which is a condition where the person’s breathing temporarily stops while asleep (between 50 -75%)
- Ear infections (between 50 -70%)
- Eye diseases (up to 60%), like cataracts and eye issues requiring glasses
- Heart defects present at birth (50%)
- Intestinal blockage at birth requiring surgery
- Hip dislocation
- Thyroid disease
- Anemia (red blood cells can’t carry enough oxygen to the body) and iron deficiency (anemia where the red blood cells don’t have enough iron)
- Leukemia in infancy or early childhood
- Hirschsprung disease
Living with Down syndrome
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