domingo, 11 de enero de 2015

Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

Full report also available as PDF

FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report Prepared by the Influenza Division

2014-2015 Influenza Season Week 53 ending January 3, 2015

All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.


During week 53 (December 28, 2014-January 3, 2015), influenza activity continued at elevated levels in the United States.
  • Viral Surveillance: Of 30,469 specimens tested and reported by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories during week 53, 7,515 (24.7%) were positive for influenza.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the epidemic threshold.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 20.1 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 5.6%, above the national baseline of 2.0%. All 10 regions reported ILI at or above region-specific baseline levels. Puerto Rico and 26 states experienced high ILI activity; New York City and eight states experienced moderate ILI activity; seven states experienced low ILI activity; eight states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia and one state had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Guam and 46 states was reported as widespread; Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and three states reported regional activity; and the District of Columbia and one state reported local activity.

National and Regional Summary of Select Surveillance Components

HHS Surveillance Regions*Data for Current WeekData Cumulative Since September 28, 2014 (Week 40)
Out-patient ILI†Number of jurisdictions reporting regional or widespread activity§% Respiratory specimens positive for flu‡A(H1N1)pdm09A (H3)A(Subtyping not performed)BPediatric Deaths
NationElevated52 of 5424.7%10020,06628,9112,81726
Region 1Elevated6 of 619.8%2585450340
Region 2Elevated4 of 424.3%239331,668611
Region 3Elevated5 of 633.7%42,5322,3401432
Region 4Elevated8 of 825.3%41,9328,5991,1518
Region 5Elevated6 of 633.1%85,0676,3652856
Region 6Elevated5 of 530.5%272,2615,1617335
Region 7Elevated4 of 424.8%61,1921,1881181
Region 8Elevated6 of 637.2%172,6222,4451061
Region 9Elevated4 of 518.9%69804391032
Region 10Elevated4 of 430.9%31,962256830
*HHS regions (Region 1 CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT; Region 2: NJ, NY, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands; Region 3: DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV; Region 4: AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN; Region 5: IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI; Region 6: AR, LA, NM, OK, TX; Region 7: IA, KS, MO, NE; Region 8: CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY; Region 9: AZ, CA, Guam, HI, NV; and Region 10: AK, ID, OR, WA).
† Elevated means the % of visits for ILI is at or above the national or region-specific baseline
§ Includes all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands
‡ National data are for current week; regional data are for the most recent three weeks

U.S. Virologic Surveillance:

WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories located in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia report to CDC the number of respiratory specimens tested for influenza and the number positive by influenza virus type and influenza A virus subtype. The results of tests performed during the current week are summarized in the table below. Region specific data are available at
Week 53
Data Cumulative
since September 28, 2014
(Week 40)
No. of specimens tested
No. of positive specimens (%)
7,515 (24.7%)
51,895 (19.8%)
Positive specimens by type/subtype
  Influenza A
7,218 (96.0%)
49,078 (94.6%)
8 (0.1%)
100 (0.2%)
2,486 (34.4%)
20,066 (40.9%)
            Subytping not performed
4,724 (65.4%)
28,911 (58.9%)
  Influenza B
297 (4.0%)
2,817 (5.4%)
INFLUENZA Virus IsolatedView National and Regional Level Graphs and Data | View Chart Data | View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation

Influenza Virus Characterization*:

CDC has characterized 355 influenza viruses [10 A(H1N1)pdm09, 288 A(H3N2), and 57 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2014.
Influenza A Virus [298]
  • A (H1N1)pdm09 [10]: All 10 H1N1 viruses tested were characterized as A/California/7/2009-like, the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine.
  • A (H3N2) [288]: 91 (31.6%) of the 288 H3N2 viruses tested have been characterized as A/Texas/50/2012-like, the influenza A (H3N2) component of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine. 197 (68.4%) of the 288 viruses tested showed either reduced titers with antiserum produced against A/Texas/50/2012 or belonged to a genetic group that typically shows reduced titers to A/Texas/50/2012. Among viruses that showed reduced titers with antiserum raised against A/Texas/50/2012, most were antigenically similar to A/Switzerland/9715293/2013, the H3N2 virus selected for the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine. A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 is related to, but antigenically and genetically distinguishable, from the A/Texas/50/2012 vaccine virus. A/Switzerland-like H3N2 viruses were first detected in the United States in small numbers in March of 2014 and began to increase through the spring and summer.
Influenza B Virus [57]
Fourty (70.2%) of the influenza B viruses tested belong to B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage and the remaining 17 (29.8%) influenza B viruses tested belong to B/Victoria/02/87 lineage.
  • Yamagata Lineage [40]: All 40 B/Yamagata-lineage viruses were characterized as B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like, which is included as an influenza B component of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccines.
  • Victoria Lineage [17]: Fifteen (88.2%) of the 17 B/Victoria-lineage viruses were characterized as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like, the virus that is included as an influenza B component of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere quadrivalent influenza vaccine. Two (11.8%) of the B/Victoria-lineage viruses tested showed reduced titers to B/Brisbane/60/2008.
*CDC routinely uses hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to antigenically characterize influenza viruses year-round to compare how similar currently circulating influenza viruses are to those included in the influenza vaccine, and to monitor for changes in circulating influenza viruses. However, a portion of recent influenza A(H3N2) viruses do not grow to sufficient hemagglutination titers for antigenic characterization by HI. For many of these viruses, CDC is also performing genetic characterization to infer antigenic properties.

Antiviral Resistance:

Testing of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and influenza B virus isolates for resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir) is performed at CDC using a functional assay. Additional A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) clinical samples are tested for mutations of the virus known to confer oseltamivir resistance. The data summarized below combine the results of both testing methods. These samples are routinely obtained for surveillance purposes rather than for diagnostic testing of patients suspected to be infected with antiviral-resistant virus.
High levels of resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) persist among A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses (the adamantanes are not effective against influenza B viruses). Therefore, data from adamantane resistance testing are not presented below.

Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Testing Results on Samples Collected Since October 1, 2014

Virus Samples tested (n)
Resistant Viruses, Number (%)
Virus Samples tested (n)
Resistant Viruses, Number (%)
Virus Samples tested (n)
Resistant Viruses, Number (%)
Influenza A (H3N2)
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)
Influenza B
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)
Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)
0 (0.0)

In the United States, all recently circulating influenza viruses have been susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications, oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir; however, rare sporadic instances of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses have been detected worldwide. Antiviral treatment with oseltamivir, zanamivir, or peramivir is recommended as early as possible for patients with confirmed or suspected influenza who have severe, complicated, or progressive illness; who require hospitalization; or who are at high risk for serious influenza-related complications. Additional information on recommendations for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza virus infection with antiviral agents is available at

Pneumonia and Influenza (P&I) Mortality Surveillance:

During week 53, 7.0% of all deaths reported through the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System were due to P&I. This percentage was above the epidemic threshold of 6.9% for week 53.
Pneumonia And Influenza Mortality
View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation

Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality:

Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported to CDC during week 53. All five deaths were associated with an influenza A virus for which no subtyping was performed and occurred during weeks 50, 51, 52, and 53 (weeks ending December 13, December 20, December 27, 2014, and January 3, 2015, respectively).
A total of 26 influenza-associated deaths have been reported during the 2014-2015 season from New York City [1] and 13 states (Arizona [1], Colorado [1], Florida [2], Georgia [1], Kansas [1], Minnesota [3], North Carolina [2], Nevada [1], Ohio [2], Tennessee [3], Texas [5], Virginia [2], and Wisconsin [1]).

Additional data can be found at:
Click on image to launch interactive tool
View Interactive Application | View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation

Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations:

The Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) conducts population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations in children younger than 18 years of age (since the 2003-2004 influenza season) and adults (since the 2005-2006 influenza season).
The FluSurv-NET covers more than 70 counties in the 10 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) states (CA, CO, CT, GA, MD, MN, NM, NY, OR, and TN) and additional Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Project (IHSP) states. The IHSP began during the 2009-2010 season to enhance surveillance during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. IHSP sites included IA, ID, MI, OK and SD during the 2009-2010 season; ID, MI, OH, OK, RI, and UT during the 2010-2011 season; MI, OH, RI, and UT during the 2011-2012 season; IA, MI, OH, RI, and UT during the 2012-2013 season; and MI, OH, and UT during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons.
Data gathered are used to estimate age-specific hospitalization rates on a weekly basis, and describe characteristics of persons hospitalized with severe influenza illness. The rates provided are likely to be an underestimate as influenza-related hospitalizations can be missed, either because testing is not performed, or because cases may be attributed to other causes of pneumonia or other common influenza-related complications.
Between October 1, 2014 and January 03, 2015, 5,492 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations were reported. The overall hospitalization rate was 20.1 per 100,000 population. The highest rate of hospitalization was among adults aged ≥65 years (91.6 per 100,000 population), followed by children aged 0-4 years (22.0 per 100,000 population). Among all hospitalizations, 5,332 (97.1%) were associated with influenza A, 138 (2.5%) with influenza B, 13 (0.2%) with influenza A and B co-infection, and nine (0.2%) had no virus type information. Among those with influenza A subtype information, 1,582 (99.6%) were A(H3N2) virus and six (0.4%) were A(H1N1)pdm09.
Clinical findings are preliminary and based on 709 (13%) cases with complete medical chart abstraction. The majority (94%) of hospitalized adults had at least one reported underlying medical condition; the most commonly reported were metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. There were 105 hospitalized children with complete medical chart abstraction, 43 (41%) had no identified underlying medical conditions. The most commonly reported underlying medical conditions among pediatric patients were asthma, obesity, and immune suppression. Among the 77 hospitalized women of childbearing age (15-44 years), 21 were pregnant.

Click on graph to launch interactive tool
Data from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET), a population-based surveillance for influenza related hospitalizations in children and adults in 13 U.S. states. Incidence rates are calculated using the National Center for Health Statistics’ (NCHS) population estimates for the counties included in the surveillance catchment area.
View Interactive Application | View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation 

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2
FluSurv-NET data are preliminary and displayed as they become available. Therefore, figures are based on varying denominators as some variables represent information that may require more time to be collected. Data are refreshed and updated weekly. Asthma includes a medical diagnosis of asthma or reactive airway disease; Cardiovascular diseases include conditions such as coronary heart disease, cardiac valve disorders, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension; does not include isolated hypertension; Chronic lung diseases include conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiolitis obliterans, chronic aspiration pneumonia, and interstitial lung disease; Immune suppression includes conditions such as immunoglobulin deficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, HIV/AIDS, and individuals taking immunosuppressive medications; Metabolic disorders include conditions such as diabetes mellitus; Neurologic diseases include conditions such as seizure disorders, cerebral palsy, and cognitive dysfunction; Neuromuscular diseasesinclude conditions such as multiple sclerosis and muscular dystrophy; Obesity was assigned if indicated in patient's medical chart or if body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2; Pregnancy percentage calculated using number of female cases aged between 15 and 44 years of age as the denominator; Renal diseases include conditions such as acute or chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, and impaired creatinine clearance; No known condition indicates that the case did not have any known high risk medical condition indicated in medical chart at the time of hospitalization.
View Interactive Application | View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation

Outpatient Illness Surveillance:

Nationwide during week 53, 5.6% of patient visits reported through the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) were due to influenza-like illness (ILI). This percentage is above the national baseline of 2.0%.
(ILI is defined as fever (temperature of 100°F [37.8°C] or greater) and cough and/or sore throat.)
The increase in the percentage of patient visits for ILI in weeks 52 and 53, compared to week 51, may be influenced in part by a reduction in routine healthcare visits during the holidays, as has occurred in previous seasons.
national levels of ILI and ARI View National and Regional Level Graphs and Data | View Chart Data | View Full Screen | View PowerPoint Presentation 

On a regional level, the percentage of outpatient visits for ILI ranged from 2.4% to 10.2% during week 53. All 10 regions reported a proportion of outpatient visits for ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels.

ILINet State Activity Indicator Map:

Data collected in ILINet are used to produce a measure of ILI activity* by state. Activity levels are based on the percent of outpatient visits in a state due to ILI and are compared to the average percent of ILI visits that occur during weeks with little or no influenza virus circulation. Activity levels range from minimal, which would correspond to ILI activity from outpatient clinics being below, or only slightly above, the average, to high, which would correspond to ILI activity from outpatient clinics being much higher than average.
During week 53, the following ILI activity levels were experienced:
  • Puerto Rico and 26 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) experienced high ILI activity.
  • New York City and eight states (California, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Wyoming) experienced moderate ILI activity.
  • Seven states (Arizona, Georgia, Massachusetts, New York, North Dakota, Vermont, and Washington) experienced low ILI activity.
  • Eight states (Alaska, Connecticut, Iowa, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Rhode Island) experienced minimal ILI activity.
  • Data were insufficient to calculate an ILI activity level from the District of Columbia and one state (Delaware).
Click on map to launch interactive tool

Click on map to launch interactive tool

*This map uses the proportion of outpatient visits to health care providers for influenza-like illness to measure the ILI activity level within a state. It does not, however, measure the extent of geographic spread of flu within a state. Therefore, outbreaks occurring in a single city could cause the state to display high activity levels.
Data collected in ILINet may disproportionally represent certain populations within a state, and therefore, may not accurately depict the full picture of influenza activity for the whole state.
Data displayed in this map are based on data collected in ILINet, whereas the State and Territorial flu activity map is based on reports from state and territorial epidemiologists. The data presented in this map is preliminary and may change as more data is received.
Differences in the data presented here by CDC and independently by some state health departments likely represent differing levels of data completeness with data presented by the state likely being the more complete.

Geographic Spread of Influenza as Assessed by State and Territorial Epidemiologists

The influenza activity reported by state and territorial epidemiologists indicates geographic spread of influenza viruses, but does not measure the severity of influenza activity.
During week 53, the following influenza activity was reported:
  • Widespread influenza activity was reported by Guam and 46 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming).
  • Regional influenza activity was reported by Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and three states (Alaska, Arizona, and California).
  • Local activity was reported by the District of Columbia and one state (Hawaii).

Additional National and International Influenza Surveillance Information

FluView Interactive: FluView includes enhanced web-based interactive applications that can provide dynamic visuals of the influenza data collected and analyzed by CDC. These FluView Interactive applications allow people to create customized, visual interpretations of influenza data, as well as make comparisons across flu seasons, regions, age groups and a variety of other demographics. To access these tools, visit
U.S. State and local influenza surveillance: Click on a jurisdiction below to access the latest local influenza information.

Google Flu Trends: Google Flu Trends uses aggregated Google search data in a model created in collaboration with CDC to estimate influenza activity in the United States. For more information and activity estimates from the United States and worldwide, see
World Health Organization: Additional influenza surveillance information from participating WHO member nations is available through FluNet and theGlobal Epidemiology Reports.
WHO Collaborating Centers for Influenza located in AustraliaChinaJapan, the United Kingdom, and the United States (CDC in Atlanta, Georgia).
Europe: for the most recent influenza surveillance information from Europe, please see WHO/Europe at and visit the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control at
Public Health Agency of Canada: The most up-to-date influenza information from Canada is available at
Public Health England: The most up-to-date influenza information from the United Kingdom is available at

Any links provided to non-Federal organizations are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the Federal Government, and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization web pages found at these links.

In addition to the eight data components of CDC influenza surveillance for the 2014-2015 influenza season, the use of National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) pneumonia and influenza mortality surveillance data for the rapid assessment of influenza-associated mortality will be piloted. An overview of influenza surveillance, including a description of the NCHS mortality surveillance data, is available here.

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario