miércoles, 17 de febrero de 2016

Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute

Genetics of Prostate Cancer–for health professionals (PDQ®)


Changes to This Summary (02/12/2016)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added text to state that approximately 10% of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in men younger than 56 years and represent early-onset prostate cancer. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program show that the early-onset prostate cancer is increasing over time, and there is evidence that some cases may be more aggressive (cited Salinas et al. as reference 9). Also added that because early-onset cancers likely result from germline mutations, young men with prostate cancer are being extensively studied with the goal of identifying prostate cancer susceptibility genes.
Added text to state that prostate cancer is highly heritable; the inherited risk of prostate cancer has been estimated to be as high as 60% (cited Hjelmborg et al. as reference 13).
Added text about an analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative that showed that a family history of prostate cancer was associated with an increase in the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (cited Beebe-Dimmer et al. as reference 28).
Updated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) as reference 36.
Added Islami et al. as reference 50. Also added text about an analysis of data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study that showed that vasectomy was associated with high-grade prostate cancer and lethal prostate cancer (cited Siddiqui et al. as reference 53). Also revised text to state that obesity has been associated with an increased risk of advanced stage at diagnosis, high-grade tumors, prostate cancer metastases, and prostate cancer–specific death.
Added text about a review of more than 441,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer that found an overall reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with a second primary cancer; this study also examined the risk of second primary cancers in 44,310 men by treatment modality for localized cancer and suggested that men who received radiation therapy had increases in bladder and rectal cancer risk (cited Davis et al. as reference 59).
Added text about an analysis of longer follow-up of the monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs in Scandinavia that concluded that 58% of prostate cancer risk may be accounted for by heritable factors.
Revised text to state that, typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, are moderately to highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. Also revised text to state that genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies typically are common in the population and have low to modest effect sizes for prostate cancer risk.
Revised text to state that linkage analyses are affected by factors related to the age at diagnosis and by genetic heterogeneity.
Revised text to state that there are no clinical or pathological features of prostate cancer that will allow differentiation between inherited and sporadic forms of the disease, although current advances in the understanding of molecular phenotypes of prostate cancer may inform identifying inherited prostate cancer.
Revised Table 13 to state that NCCN has no specific recommendation for African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer, although the panel acknowledges that these individuals may require a higher level of vigilance and potentially different considerations when analyzing the results of screening tests (cited NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection as reference 11). Also updated NCCN Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian as reference 12.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
  • Updated: February 12, 2016

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