lunes, 28 de noviembre de 2016

Linfoma de Hodgkin en adultos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud - National Cancer Institute

Linfoma de Hodgkin en adultos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud - National Cancer Institute
Instituto Nacional Del Cáncer

Linfoma de Hodgkin en adultos: Tratamiento (PDQ®)–Versión para profesionales de salud


Información general sobre el linfoma de Hodgkin en adultos

Incidencia y mortalidad

Cálculo del número de casos nuevos y defunciones por linfoma de Hodgkin (LH) en los Estados Unidos en 2016:[1]
  • Casos nuevos: 8.500.
  • Defunciones: 1.120.
Más de 75% de todos los pacientes recién diagnosticados con LH en adultos se pueden curar con quimioterapia combinada o radioterapia.[2] La mortalidad nacional por LH ha tenido un descenso mucho más rápido que cualquier otro cáncer durante las últimas cinco décadas.[2]

Pronóstico y factores de supervivencia

El pronóstico para un determinado paciente depende de varios factores. Los factores más importantes son la presencia o ausencia de síntomas sistémicos, el estadio de la enfermedad, la presencia de masas voluminosas y la calidad e idoneidad del tratamiento administrado. Otros factores importantes son la edad, el sexo, la tasa de sedimentación de eritrocitos, el grado de complicación abdominal, el hematocrito y el número absoluto de los sitios ganglionares afectados.[3-5]
El LH es la causa principal de muerte durante los primeros 15 años de tratamiento. La mortalidad acumulada por un segundo cáncer excederá la mortalidad acumulada por LH 15 o 20 años después del tratamiento.[6-8]

Sumarios relacionados

Nota: otros sumarios del PDQ que contienen información relacionada con el cáncer de colon son los siguientes:
  1. American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2016. Available online. Last accessed July 11, 2016.
  2. Brenner H, Gondos A, Pulte D: Ongoing improvement in long-term survival of patients with Hodgkin disease at all ages and recent catch-up of older patients. Blood 111 (6): 2977-83, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2007. Also available online. Last accessed June 22, 2016.
  4. Cosset JM, Henry-Amar M, Meerwaldt JH, et al.: The EORTC trials for limited stage Hodgkin's disease. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group. Eur J Cancer 28A (11): 1847-50, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Evens AM, Helenowski I, Ramsdale E, et al.: A retrospective multicenter analysis of elderly Hodgkin lymphoma: outcomes and prognostic factors in the modern era. Blood 119 (3): 692-5, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Mauch PM, Kalish LA, Marcus KC, et al.: Long-Term Survival in Hodgkin's Disease Cancer J Sci Am 1 (1): 33-42, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Aisenberg AC: Problems in Hodgkin's disease management. Blood 93 (3): 761-79, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Aleman BM, van den Belt-Dusebout AW, Klokman WJ, et al.: Long-term cause-specific mortality of patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 21 (18): 3431-9, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  • Actualización: 8 de abril de 2016

Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute

Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version


Changes to This Summary (11/22/2016)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Eichenauer et al. as reference 8.
Revised text to state that clinical staging for patients with HL includes a history, physical examination, laboratory studies, and thoracic and abdominal/pelvic computerized tomographic (CT) scans with or without positron emission tomography (PET) (cited Barrington et al. as reference 2).
Revised text to state that PET scans combined with CT scans have become the standard imaging for clinical staging.
Revised text to state that at a 15-year follow-up, the risk of second solid tumors is approximately 13%; at a 20-year follow-up, the risk is approximately 17%; at a 25-year follow-up, the risk is approximately 22%; and at a 40-year follow-up, the risk is approximately 48% (cited Schaapveld et al. as reference 21).
Revised text to state that the risk appears greatest for women treated with radiation before age 30 years and especially close to menarche, and the incidence increases substantially after 15 years of follow-up (cited Cooke et al. as reference 34).
Added van Nimwegen et al. as reference 55.
Added text to state that patients older than 60 years with HL may experience more treatment-related morbidity and mortality; maintaining dose intensity of standard chemotherapy may be difficult. Alternative therapies have been proposed for elderly patients, but no randomized trials have been conducted with these regimens (cited Kolstad et al. as reference 67). A series of 27 previously untreated patients older than 60 years, judged by the investigator to be in too poor a condition to undergo chemotherapy, received brentuximab; a 92% overall response rate and 73% complete remission rate were reported (cited Forero-Torres et al. as reference 68 and level of evidence 3iiiDiv).
Added Merli et al. as reference 11. Also revised text to state that with a median follow-up of 120 months, although progression-free survival (PFS) favored bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) over doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD), there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS).
Added text to state that transplant-related mortality with escalated BEACOPP increases in older patients, especially with poor performance status (cited Wongso et al. as reference 10).
Revised text to state that for relapsing patients, response rates around 75% are seen with complete remissions around 30% to 50% and median PFS of 4 to 8 months. Added that a series of 27 previously untreated patients older than 60 years, judged by the investigator to be in too poor a condition to undergo chemotherapy, received brentuximab; a 92% overall response rate and 73% complete remission rate were reported (added level of evidence 3iiiDiv).
Revised text to state that patients who relapse after initial combination chemotherapy can undergo reinduction with the same or another chemotherapy regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow or peripheral stem cell or allogeneic bone marrow rescue.
Added text to state that a Cochrane meta-analysis also concluded that autologous stem cell transplantation after reinduction chemotherapy improves relapse-free survival by 20% to 30% over chemotherapy alone, but without an OS benefit (cited Rancea et al. as reference 28 and level of evidence 1iiDii).
Added text to state that there is no evidence that a pregnancy after completion of therapy increases the relapse rate for patients in remission (cited Weibull et al. as reference 18).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
  • Updated: November 22, 2016

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