Homophobia, masculinity, and violent young men
“The contemporary framing of sexual desire in terms of sexual orientation and identity is incongruous with the essentialist approach to ethics and philosophy more generally, and results in something more reminiscent of a contemporary utilitarianism.”
What is true is already so.
Owning up to it doesn't make it worse.
Not being open about it doesn't make it go away.
And because it's true, it is what is there to be interacted with.
Anything untrue isn't there to be lived.
People can stand what is true,
for they are already enduring it.
"The verbal abuse started as soon as they noticed me," he said, recalling that one of the men called him "faggot freak" and said: 'This is the men's toilet, not the the ladies, f----ing faggot, get the f--- out of here!'
“appears to be part of the general motivation behind violent attacks on a range of targets by adolescent and young adult males. The profile of an assailant of lesbians and gays is very similar to the profile of assailants of women, people from non-English speaking backgrounds, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.”
“Some people who participate [in a bashing incident] have no more anti-gay animosity than most people who don't. I've found, in interviewing perpetrators, that some adamantly support gay civil rights, for example, which is a real surprise to a lot of people.”
“In a nation that glorifies violence and abhors sexual diversity, a minority perceived to violate gender norms functions as an ideal dramatic prop for young men to use in demonstrating their masculinity, garnering social approval, and alleviating boredom.”
“operating more as a cultural standard than as an achievable status for the majority of men. Although hegemonic masculinity is somewhat elastic…it generally connotes dominance, competitiveness, occupational achievement, and heterosexuality”
“because men who endorse traditional male gender role beliefs also demonstrate extreme adherence to masculine ideology, they are threatened when confronted by violations of the traditional male gender role. Consequently, these men are at increased risk to respond with stereotypical masculine emotions (e.g., anger) and behaviors (e.g., aggression). This expression of aggression purportedly functions to enforce traditional gender norms as well as reaffirm one’s masculine identity.”
“Of course, endorsing traditional beliefs of masculinity and femininity does not directly translate into antigay aggression. Rather, men who frequently question their masculinity or have it questioned by other men are presumably more likely to exaggerate stereotypical masculine behaviors (e.g., aggression toward gay men) in order to maintain gender dichotomy and reaffirm their heterosexual masculinity.”
“The division of participants is crucial to understanding male group aggression. In masculinist, assault-prone environments, men fall into one of three categories: dominators, dominated, andfollowers. Followers feel like they must go along with the dominators, lest they be branded as nonmasculine, risk expulsion from the group, or, in extreme cases, become victims themselves.”
“The leaders need to be identified early in their transgressive careers; in cases such as those discussed here, subsequent violence could have been avoided if authorities had intervened earlier. Followers, on the other hand, may be reached through educational efforts and reduction of their dependency and sense of peer pressure to conform to the group.”
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